Other Notable Health Studies & Research From May 19, 2022

There are dozens of studies, innovations, and research findings released everyday by institutions and clinics across the world. Here’s a look at some of the other notable health reports from May 19.

New breathable gas sensors may improve monitoring of health, environment
Newly developed flexible, porous and highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide sensors that can be applied to skin and clothing have potential applications in health care, environmental health monitoring and military use, according to researchers.

Can We Prevent Antibiotic Resistance?
Antibiotics are losing effectiveness—and millions are dying as a result. CARB-X, a BU-based partnership that aims to solve antimicrobial resistance, has been given up to $370 million in new funding from the US government and charitable foundation Wellcome.

Scientists devise method to prevent deadly hospital infections without antibiotics
A novel surface treatment developed by a UCLA-led team of scientists could help improve the safety of these devices and ease the economic burden on the health care system.

First Intermediate to Long-Term Study of the Harmony Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve System Validates Safety and Efficacy
A study of 1-year outcomes in the largest cohort to date of Harmony transcatheter pulmonary valve (TPV) patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) was presented today as late-breaking clinical research at the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) 2022 Scientific Sessions.

Without ‘work-life balance,’ this protein may promote disease
A family of proteins that have a role in ensuring many types of cells move and maintain their shape may promote disease when they act like workaholics and disrupt the cellular environment, new research suggests.

Human Behavior is Key to Building a Better Long-term COVID Forecast
UConn College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources Allied Health researcher Ran Xu, along with collaborators Hazhir Rahmandad from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Navid Ghaffarzadegan from Virginia Tech, have a paper out today in PLOS Computational Biology where they detail how they applied relatively simple but nuanced variables to enhance modelling capabilities, with the result that their approach out-performed a majority of the models currently used to inform decisions made by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The genetic underpinnings of severe staph infections
The research, published in Science, identifies a mutated gene common to multiple patients who suffer life-threatening infections and suggests that people living with a genetic condition known as 5p- or Cri-du-chat syndrome may be at similar risk.

Bird Flu: How It’s Spreading and What to Know About This Outbreak
A new study from researchers at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine details which species are super spreaders, and the director of the Wildlife Clinic shares advice for protection.

Genetic predictability steadily erodes during evolution, new study shows
A critical goal in genetics and evolution is predicting the effects of mutations that may happen in the future and inferring the effects of those that happened in the past.

*Free* Understanding internet addiction, and its root causes, towards preventing problematic use
Problematic internet use parallels other addictive behaviors, including drug addiction, but the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms involved remain elusive.

Genetic risk scores help predict type 2 diabetes in people of south Asian origin, study finds
Combining a genetic risk score with a clinical risk score improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes in British Pakistani and British Bangladeshi individuals, especially in the young, according to a new study publishing May 19 in the open access journal PLOS Medicine by Sarah Finer of Queen Mary University of London, UK, and colleagues.

Repurposed antibiotic may be an effective therapeutic in COVID-19 infected mice
A study publishing May 19th inthe open access journal PLOS Pathogens by Sandrine Belouzard and Jean Dubuisson at Pasteur Institute, Lille, France and colleagues suggests clofoctol may be an effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infections in mice.

Bird flu is driven by ecologically diverse species, with wild ducks, gulls, geese, and poultry playing a role in global spread
Funding for this project was provided by the NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (HHSN272201400008C (JR) & HHSN272201400006C (JH)) and the North Pacific Research Board (project no. 1411 (NH, MB, JR)).

Some people fared better than others during COVID-19 pandemic due to genetics
Everyone has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but a new study by Lude Franke and colleagues of the University of Groningen, Netherlands finds that some individuals weathered the stress of the pandemic better than others, in part, due to their genetics.

Problems in the powerhouse: Excessive degradation of mitochondria found to be a tipping point from normal, beneficial alcohol metabolism to alcoholic liver disease
Alcohol exposure causes damage to mitochondria, activating their degradation and subsequent removal of damaged mitochondria; however, constant mitochondrial removal causes additional damage to liver tissue.

Epilepsy drug stops nervous system tumor growth in mice
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered that neurons carrying a mutation in the Nf1 gene are hyperexcitable and that suppressing this hyperactivity with lamotrigine, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat epilepsy, stops tumor growth in mice.

BU study: Increasing urban greenery could have prevented at least 34,000 US deaths over two decades
Increasing greenery in US urban areas may substantially reduce mortality of all causes, according to a new study led by Boston University School of Public Health researchers.

Studies reveal key clues about COVID-19 immunity, immune recall
A trio of newly published studies of people infected with SARS-CoV-2, vaccinated against the virus, or both are providing tantalizing new clues about the factors that influence the speed and magnitude of the immune system’s response to subsequent infection with variants of SARS-CoV-2.

‘Sting’ Protein’s Efforts to Clean Up Brain Cell Damage May Speed Parkinson’s Disease Progress
In studies with mouse and human tissue, as well as live mice, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report that a snag in the normal process of cleaning up broken DNA in brain cells may hasten the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

A gene-targeted approach may help prevent or recover neonatal brain injuries
The findings of a new pre-clinical study published in The Journal of Neuroscience are helping pave the way toward better understanding, prevention and recovery of neonatal brain injuries.

Genomic differences selected through evolution may offer clues as to why COVID-19 outcomes vary widely
According to work led by University of Pennsylvania scientists, genomic variants in four genes that are critical to SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the ACE2 gene, were targets of natural selection and associated with health conditions seen in COVID-19 patients.

Male pheromones improve health of females’ eggs
Male pheromones just might be the fountain of youth for aging female animals’ eggs, according to a new Northwestern University study.

Registrations open for São Paulo School of Advanced Science on Pathogenic Trypanosomatids
The São Paulo School of Advanced Science on Pathogenic Trypanosomatids (SPSAS TrypsSchool) will be held in Brazil on September 19-30 at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School of the University of São Paulo (FMRP-USP) in São Paulo state, Brazil.

Talking about sexual consent and expectations can improve relationships and wellbeing
Teaching the benefits of affirmative sexual consent while also validating anxieties people might experience about consent communication is an important step for improving sexual health and wellbeing, according to a new study.

Medication Treatment of Pediatric Psychiatric Disorders Reduces the Later Onset of Substance Use Problems
A new study from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) finds that treating psychiatric disorders with psychotropic medications in children and adolescents does not increase the risk of developing substance use, misuse, or substance use disorder (SUD).

Fly researchers find another layer to the code of life
A new examination of the way different tissues read information from genes has discovered that the brain and testes appear to be extraordinarily open to the use of many different kinds of code to produce a given protein.

Oncotarget | Anti-Cancer Drug Profiling With CancerOmicsNet
A new research paper was published in Volume 13 of Oncotarget, entitled, “CancerOmicsNet: a multi-omics network-based approach to anti-cancer drug profiling.”

DAP array casts a wide net to fix mutations
A genome-editing strategy developed at Rice University can correct dozens of errors at the same time with high precision and efficiency, a possible breakthrough for those who suffer from diseases caused by a combination of mutations.

Physician Mistreatment Emerges as Crisis that Can Ripple Through U.S. Health Care
In a recent survey of more than 6,500 physicians from across the United States representing a broad spectrum of racial and ethnic diversity, nearly 30% of respondents reported experiencing discrimination and mistreatment from patients or patients’ family members or visitors.

Northpond Labs funds second research project at Harvard’s Wyss Institute
The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and Northpond Ventures announced today that Northpond Labs, the venture capital firm’s research- and development-focused affiliate, has signed an agreement to support a second Wyss project and accelerate its development toward commercialization.

Study Shines Light on Longevity of COVID-19 Immune Response
By uniting research from 8 cohorts across the U.S., a group of researchers has accelerated collection of data integral to answering questions about immune responses needed for long lasting protection from SARS-CoV-2.

New study shows genes can predict response to arthritis treatment and paves the way for future drug development
New research from Queen Mary University of London, published in Nature Medicine, has shown that molecular profiling of the diseased joint tissue can significantly impact whether specific drug treatments will work to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

Physicians’ Experiences With Mistreatment and Discrimination by Patients, Families, and Visitors and Association With Burnout
In this cross-sectional study of 6512 US physicians, mistreatment and discriminatory behaviors by patients, families, and visitors within the previous year were common, especially for female and racial and ethnic minority physicians, and associated with higher burnout rates.

Association of Extreme Heat With All-Cause Mortality in the Contiguous US, 2008-2017
In this cross-sectional study using a longitudinal analysis of county-level monthly all-cause mortality rates from all counties in the contiguous US from 2008 to 2017, each additional extreme heat day in a month was associated with 0.07 additional death per 100 000 adults.

Trends in Cancer Mortality Among Black Individuals in the US From 1999 to 2019
In this cross-sectional study of 1 361 663 deaths from cancer among Black individuals, although cancer mortality decreased considerably among Black individuals from 1999 to 2019, the cancer mortality rate was higher among Black men and women than in other racial and ethnic groups in 2019.

Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated With Anti–SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Levels After 2 BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Doses
In this cohort study of 50 individuals, anti–SARS-CoV-2–specific antibody levels at 2, 4, and 6 months after COVID-19 vaccination were inversely correlated with body weight.

Cancer death rates among Black people declined over time, but remain higher than other racial and ethnic groups
In 2019, Black people still had considerably higher rates of cancer death than people in other racial and ethnic groups, a large epidemiologic study has found.

Identifying DNA restore genes holds promise for enhancing most cancers therapy
A brand new approach through which most cancers cells can restore DNA injury has been found by researchers on the University of Birmingham.

Major Uptick Reported in Cannabis Vaping for All Adolescents
Cannabis vaping is increasing as the most popular method of cannabis delivery among all adolescents in the U.S., as is the frequency of cannabis vaping, according to research at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.

Watch dolphins line up to self-medicate skin ailments at coral ‘clinics’
In the journal iScience on May 19, researchers show that these corals have medicinal properties, suggesting that the dolphins are using the marine invertebrates to medicate skin conditions.

Mount Sinai Microbiome Lab Joins NIH’s Accelerating Medicines Partnership
The National Institutes of the Health (NIH) has awarded researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai a four-year grant to study the role of the human microbiome in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, and other autoimmune diseases.

Neurogene Advances A Rett Gene Replacement Program That Got Its Start At RSRT
Today is an exciting day for the Rett syndrome community: The biopharmaceutical company Neurogene announced that they are pursuing a gene replacement program for Rett syndrome.

Marshall University researchers awarded DOD grant to study Alzheimer’s disease
Researchers at the Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine received a $1.3 million grant from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Department of Defense (DOD), to study the role of obesity and oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease.

Patient safety and quality of care: Regenstrief study explores medical record linkage with goal of improving match accuracy
A new study from the Regenstrief Institute is one of the first to evaluate commercially available matching methodologies in comparison to real-world gold standard data with the goal of identifying evidence-based opportunities for improving match accuracy for record linkage.

SCAI Issues Official Guidelines for the Management of Patent Foramen Ovale
The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) today released official guidelines for the management of patent foramen ovale (PFO).

Broadening the Scope of Epoxide Ring Opening Reactions with Zirconocene
In a new study published in Chem, a team of chemists from Japan led by Professor Junichiro Yamaguchi, graduate students Kazuhiro Aida and Marina Hirao, and Assistant Professor Eisuke Ota from the Department of Applied Chemistry at Waseda University, investigated zirconocene, the zirconium counterpart to titanocene, as a potential alternative catalyst for the ring opening reaction.

The why of the silent X
Research unravels the mystery of how one of the X chromosomes in female embryonic stem cells is silenced.

Creating HOPE: New app helps people struggling with opioids
With opioid overdose deaths reaching an all-time high during the COVID-19 pandemic, a new app developed at UVA Health is helping people struggling with opioids get the care they need.

Research briefs: Smartphone addiction and the secrets of killer whale diets
McGill University researchers may have found a solution based on nudges, small changes to phone settings or behaviour that can help curb smartphone addiction.

Possible discovery ofmechanism behind mysterious COVID-19 symptoms
Now, researchers at LiU have discovered that the body’s immune system can affect the spike protein on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, leading to the production of a misfolded spike protein called amyloid.

Everyone eats three extra burgers a day than they admit
Everyone eats the equivalent of three extra McDonald’s cheeseburgers a day than they admit – regardless of their waistline, University of Essex researchers have revealed.

The fading of negative experiences
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences (MPI CBS) have now shown: The memories of the experiences fade and their traces in the brain are less strongly reactivated when we try to remember them.

Disrupt PAD III Trial Demonstrates Safety and Effectiveness of Intravascular Lithotripsy for Peripheral Artery Calcification
One year outcomes from the Disrupt PAD III Trial comparing intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) with a drug-coated balloon (DCB) to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with a DCB was presented today as late-breaking clinical research at the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) 2022 Scientific Sessions.

NACMI: International COVID-19 Registry Finds Significant Increased Risk of In-Hospital Mortality for STEMI Patients with COVID-19 Compared to Pre-Pandemic
The latest analysis from The North American COVID-19 STEMI (NACMI) was presented today as late-breaking clinical research at the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) 2022 Scientific Sessions.

Novel Distal Radial Access for Cardiac Catheterization Shown as a Safe Strategy Compared to Conventional Radial Access
Initial findings from the Distal versus Proximal Radial Artery Access for Cardiac Catheterization and Intervention (DIPRA) study were presented today as late-breaking clinical research at the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) 2022 Scientific Sessions.

Gout Medicine Improves Survival for Heart Failure Patients, Study Finds
A common gout medication, colchicine, significantly improved survival rates for patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure, a UVA Health study found.

Sweet success: world’s largest islet transplant program celebrates 20 years of changing lives for people with diabetes
After 20 years of perfecting their technique, the team behind the largest islet transplant program in the world reports the procedure is a safe, reliable and life-changing treatment for people with hard-to-control diabetes.

Diet plays key role in ADHD symptoms in children
Here’s a good reason for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to eat their fruits and vegetables: It may help reduce inattention issues, a new study suggests.

Music alleviates collective grief
Now, in a study published in the journal Behavioral Sciences, Lydia Giménez-Llort, professor of the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine and researcher at the INC-UAB, analyses how the music, lyrics and images in the video combine to show empathy and transmit a message of support to the citizens of Wuhan in a way that moves viewers.

Scientists develop ‘off the shelf’ engineered stem cells to treat aggressive brain cancer
Investigators have devised a novel therapeutic method for treating glioblastomas post-surgery by using stem cells taken from healthy donors engineered to attack GBM-specific tumor cells.

International study identifies most important vascular risk factors for dementia
International research led by NUI Galway has identified the most important risk factors for dementia in middle-aged and older people.

Physical activity and healthy diet during menopause help to protect from the health risks associated with increased adiposity
A study conducted in the Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, revealed that menopausal transition increases women’s body fat especially in the waist area.

The Latest Trends in Sleep Medicine
Approvals for new medicines for treating sleep disorders along with new evidence-based interventions for insomnia and sleep apnea, have transformed sleep medicine into a medical specialty in its own right.

Pediatric Anesthesia: A Guide for the Non-Pediatric Anesthesia Provider Part I
Pediatric Anesthesia: A Guide for the Non-Pediatric Anesthesia is a comprehensive, contemporary reference that addresses all aspects of pediatric anesthesia.

Do Compression Garments Facilitate Muscle Recovery After Exercise?
An international research team, led by assistant professor János Négyesi from Tohoku University’s Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to assess whether compression garments assist with muscle recovery.

New non-invasive method of risk assessment in liver disease
In a recent study, an interdisciplinary research team from MedUni Vienna showed that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used as a non-invasive method for predicting complications in chronic liver disease.

New CMJ Review explores the metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease
Now, in a overview made accessible on-line on February 21 2022 and printed on March 5, 2022, in quantity 135, situation 5 of Chinese language Medical Journal, researchers from the College of Sydney summarize the present info on MAFLD.

SMART researchers enable early-stage detection of microbial contamination in cell therapy
Researchers from Critical Analytics for Manufacturing Personalized-Medicine (CAMP), an Interdisciplinary Research Group (IRG) at the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), MIT’s research enterprise in Singapore, have identified a critical quality attribute (CQA) that potentially allows the development of a rapid and sensitive process analytical technology (PAT) for sterility.

Mixed Polymeric Micelles for Osteosarcoma Therapy: Development and Characterization
This monograph primarily aims to provide information about the basic science behind the treatment of osteosarcoma along with experimental results for a novel formulation that overcomes multidrug resistance, and therefore, may serve as a viable treatment option.

Bioremediation: Challenges and Advancements
Bioremediation: Challenges and Advancements covers the subject of bioremediation in eight chapters that focus on a broad range of waste sources, their adverse impacts on the ecosystem, and the advanced strategies for their remediation.

Using Light and Sound to Reveal Rapid Brain Activity in Unprecedented Detail
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have developed a method to scan and image the blood flow and oxygen levels inside a mouse brain in real-time with enough resolution to view the activity of both individual vessels and the entire brain at once.

How cranberries could improve memory and ward off dementia
Adding cranberries to your diet could help improve memory and brain function, and lower ‘bad’ cholesterol – according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UK).

Standard test for multiple myeloma provides clues of a rare, more deadly type
A test for the common blood cancer multiple myeloma also holds clear clues that the patient has one of the most uncommon and deadly forms of this cancer, investigators say.

Research award accelerates USC’s work on next-generation cell therapy for prostate cancer
One in eight men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis in his lifetime, according to the American Cancer Society, and about one in 40 will die as a result.

Study tests link between common blood pressure pills and breast cancer
Curtin University researchers will examine if the long-term use of a popular blood pressure medication increased the risk of breast cancer in almost 200,000 women as part of a new project supported by the Federal Government.

Buck Scientist Uncovers Clues to Aging in Mitochondria
Buck Institute scientists have discovered a new mechanism of how mitochondria start to go wrong, which opens new doors for researchers to explore how to begin to fix the problem.

Injured women half as likely as men to receive life-saving drug
Injured women are half as likely as men to receive the life-saving drug tranexamic acid (TXA) even though the treatment is equally effective regardless of sex, according to new research in the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

Nationwide Study of 100 Milion Hospitalizations Finds Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Is Safe for Cardio-Oncology Patients
New data from a study of more than 100 million hospitalizations using machine learning augmentation is being presented at the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) 2022 Scientific Sessions.

Racial Disparities Seen in Treatment for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and History of Cocaine Use
Insights from a National Inpatient Sample Database examining race and the rates of cardiac catheterization or revascularization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with a history of cocaine use is being presented today at the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) 2022 Scientific Sessions.

Nationwide Study Finds Significant Decline in Treatment for Heart Attacks During Pandemic
New findings from the Ascension Health System’s internal National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) analyzing rates of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in parallel with COVID-19 surges is being presented today at the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) 2022 Scientific Sessions.

New Study Finds Low-Income Patients at Higher Risk of Death After Heart Attack
Results from a retrospective analysis reveal significantly higher mortality rates for low-income residents hospitalized with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when compared to higher-income residents.

Antibiotics given shortly before caesarean birth not linked to asthma and eczema in young children
Antibiotics given to women before a caesarean birth have no effect on the risk of early childhood conditions, such as asthma or eczema, suggests a study by researchers at the Universities of Warwick and Birmingham.

Vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 infection linked to a decrease in long covid symptoms
Vaccination after infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for covid-19, is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of long covid symptoms, finds a large study of UK adults published by The BMJ today.

Study associates higher mortality with eating lots of ultra-processed foods, red meat
Loma Linda University Health researchers say high consumption of ultra-processed foods and, separately, high consumption of red meat may be important mortality indicators.

Traumatic societal events may undermine classroom behavior interventions for certain groups, MU study finds
In a recent study, Herman found that in the midst of traumatic societal events – such as a neighborhood shooting – positive classroom behavior management interventions may not have the desired outcomes for certain individuals who could be struggling with trauma or depression associated with such an event.

UTMB drug discovery partnership awarded $56 million grant
Thanks to a $56 million grant, the University of Texas Medical Branch and global health care company Novartis will enhance their work together to discover drugs to fight off the next pandemic.

Sleep and circadian researchers and clinicians to meet in Charlotte, North Carolina
The world’s largest sleep meeting dedicated to clinical sleep medicine, sleep health, and sleep and circadian research returns to an in-person event this June. SLEEP 2022, the 36th annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC, will be held in Charlotte, North Carolina, from June 4 through June 8.

COVID booster needed for broad protection against omicron variants
A COVID-19 booster shot will provide strong and broad antibody protection against the range of omicron sublineage variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in circulation, two new studies using serum from human blood samples suggest.

Novateur Ventures Participates in Founding and Financing of Epitopea, a New Cancer Therapeutics Company
Novateur Ventures, a leading global life sciences advisory firm, announced it has participated in the $13.6M (£10.3M) seed investment raised by Epitopea, a cancer therapeutics company recently spun out of the Université de Montréal (UdeM) / IRIC in partnership with IRICoR.

Scripps Research awarded $67 million by NIH to lead new pandemic preparedness center
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is sponsoring a major new antiviral drug development center that will be led by Scripps Research.

Scientists develop and monitor two approaches to fix blood vessel abnormalities that make tumors difficult to treat
By devising a method to assess the effects of these approaches and testing it in a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, the investigators found that each approach may help to restore blood flow to enhance chemotherapy’s access to cancer cells and alleviate hypoxia, and combining them may be especially effective.

Industry Lobbying on WHO Overshadowing Public Health Policy, Researchers Suggest
Producers of such products as commercial milk formulas, processed foods, alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and electronic gaming software have been ramping up efforts to influence United States policy toward the WHO.

Consortium formed to discover antivirals for COVID-19 receives NIH funding to develop globally accessible treatments for pandemics
A consortium led by international scientists from the non-profit, open-science COVID Moonshot has been awarded an initial $68,662,387 million from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discover and develop globally accessible and affordable novel oral antivirals to combat COVID-19 and future pandemics.

Risk factors for dementia may vary with age
A new study shows that among people around age 55, the risk of developing dementia over the next 10 years was increased in those with diabetes and high blood pressure.

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